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DOC, short for
document, is a file format used initially by Microsoft Office Word for the word processing files it generated.
Even thought these types of files support more text formatting information than TXT or RTF formats, they are also less compatible to software utilities, so users typically convert them.
Microsoft Office Word is no longer the only application that could create and manage DOCs, but users still prefer export the files to other formats than try and process them.
Usually, DOC converters are light applications that do not require advanced user skills.